High Frequency PCB Manufacturer in China
High-quality, quick-turn high frequency PCB fabrication services.
High-frequency PCB is a type of printed circuit boards that help in transmitting electromagnetic waves in the frequency range of 500MHz to 2HGz. Circuit boards that transmit electromagnetic waves need some unique characteristics, and you need to consider several parameters before designing such high-frequency PCBs. You need unique materials (dielectric constant less than 3) to achieve the high frequency in these PCBs. Also, these PCBs require a unique high-frequency process in designing. These processes ensure that PCBs do not get damaged in humidity, high heat, and in the presence of chemicals.
The high-frequency range of these PCBs makes them suitable for high-speed designs and RF, mobile, and microwave applications. With high transmission frequencies, these PCBs provide a fast signal flow rate, an essential requirement for complex electronic components. HFPCBs are high-performing PCBs with many benefits over other types of PCBs.
Features of high-frequency PCB
- A material’s ability to store energy in an electrical field is dielectric constant. It changes with the changes in the axis of the material. These PCBs work in a high-frequency range, so they must have a low dielectric constant. A high dielectric constant can lead to a delay in signal transmission.
- The dissipation factor of the dielectric material is less to avoid any loss of signals.
- If the board starts interacting among themselves, it leads to crosstalk. It also results in unwanted couplings with their components. Thus, proper space between trace and plane is essential.
- Vias with small diameters show low conductivity and thus are suitable for high frequencies.
- The resistance of the traces is directly related to the skin effect. If the resistance increases, the skin effect also increases, leading to the boards’ warming. Thus, you need to select trace width and length such that it does not affect the board.
- The dielectric material should have the same thermal expansion as the conductive copper layer. If there is a difference in the temperature of these two layers, they will break apart.
- The water absorption capacity of the dielectric must be less in case of high-water absorption, the dissipation factor, and the dielectric constant increase.
- The dielectric material must have good heat resistance, chemical resistance, peel-off resistance, and impact endurance. These factors improve signal quality.
Factors influencing a high-frequency PCB Design
The factors that you need to design a high-frequency PCB board are:
- A high-frequency PCB must have good structural build-up.
- As high-frequency signals may create noise, PCB materials must have high impedance control. For this, you need to pick PCB materials wisely.
- Tolerance in signal loss
- Cost of production
- Controlled production line
- Sandwich materials for combining materials
- Operating temperature stability
- Heat sinking ability
Materials used for creating High-frequency PCB
The performance of your high-frequency board in different high-frequency applications depends on the materials used during construction. The selection of the substrate material depends on material properties, frequency of operation, and user requirements. In general, high-frequency PCB boards for data and wireless applications in the upper-frequency range have the following demands:
- Adapted permittivity
- Low attenuation to ensure adequate transmission of signals
- Homogenous construction and low tolerance in thickness of insulation and dielectric constant
In most applications, PCB manufacturers use FR4 material for improved dielectric properties. The other popular substrates are PPO and PTFE (Teflon). You can use FR4 up to a frequency of 1GHZ, which has a less thermal resistance. The PPO-based high-frequency PCB boards can work up to a frequency of 1-10 GHz. For frequencies more than 10 GHz, you can pick Teflon substrate for PCB boards. It delivers high performance but has a high thermal resistance and high cost. Teflon is the best choice in terms of dielectric constant, dissipation factor, and water absorption capacity, but it is more expensive than FR4.
Besides this, other materials that you can choose to make high-frequency PCBs are:
- ISOLA IS620 E-fiberglass
- Taconic TLX
- Taconic RF-35 ceramic
- Rogers 4350B HF
- ARLON 85N
Applications of High-frequency PCB
- Advanced communication systems in medical, industrial, and defense sectors use high-frequency printed circuit boards.
- These PCBs are ideal for airborne, ground-based radar systems, global positioning and satellite antennas, direct broadcast satellites, and space satellite transceivers.
- Radiofrequency remote controls, RF identification tags, GPS receivers, and cell phones also use HF PCBs to better signal transmission.